Vinegar has antiglycemic effect per clinical studies

By Caroltoo Latest Reply 2012-04-03 18:36:39 -0500
Started 2012-04-02 01:19:16 -0500

Blood Glucose Control

The antiglycemic effect of vinegar was first reported by Ebihara and Nakajima[47] in 1988. In rats, the blood glucose response to a 10% corn starch load was significantly reduced when coadministered with a 2% acetic acid solution.[45] In healthy human subjects, although the glucose response curve was not significantly altered, the area under the insulin response curve following the ingestion of 50 g sucrose was reduced 20% when coadministered with 60 mL strawberry vinegar.[47] Several years later, Brighenti and colleagues[48] demonstrated in normoglycemic subjects that 20 mL white vinegar (5% acetic acid) as a salad dressing ingredient reduced the glycemic response to a mixed meal (lettuce salad and white bread containing 50 g carbohydrate) by over 30% (P < .05). Salad dressings made from neutralized vinegar, formulated by adding 1.5 g sodium bicarbonate to 20 mL white vinegar, or a salt solution (1.5 g sodium chloride in 20 mL water) did not significantly affect the glycemic response to the mixed meal.[48] Separate placebo-controlled trials have corroborated the meal-time, antiglycemic effects of 20 g vinegar in healthy adults.[49-51]

While compiling a glycemic index (GI) table for 32 common Japanese foods, Sugiyama and colleagues[52] documented that the addition of vinegar or pickled foods to rice (eg, sushi) decreased the GI of rice by 20% to 35%. In these trials, healthy fasted subjects ingested the reference and test foods, each containing 50 g carbohydrate, on random days, and the food GI was calculated using the areas under the 2-hour blood glucose response curves. In the vinegar-containing foods, the amount of acetic acid was estimated to be 0.3-2.3 g, an amount similar to that found in 20 g vinegar (approximately 1 g). Ostman and colleagues[53] reported that substitution of a pickled cucumber (1.6 g acetic acid) for a fresh cucumber (0 g acetic acid) in a test meal (bread, butter, and yogurt) reduced meal GI by over 30%[53] in healthy subjects.

Recently, the antiglycemic property of vinegar was demonstrated to extend to individuals with marked insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes.[54] In this crossover trial, individuals with insulin resistance (n = 11, fasting insulin concentrations greater than 20 mU/mL) or with diagnosed type 2 diabetes (n = 10) consumed a vinegar test drink (20 g vinegar, 40 g water, 1 tsp saccharine) or placebo immediately before the consumption of a mixed meal (87 g total carbohydrate). In the insulin-resistant subjects, vinegar ingestion reduced postprandial glycemia 64% as compared with placebo values (P = .014) and improved postprandial insulin sensitivity by 34% (P= .01). In individuals with type 2 diabetes, vinegar ingestion was less effective at reducing mealtime glycemia (-17%, P = .149); however, vinegar ingestion was associated with a slight improvement in postprandial insulin sensitivity in these subjects (+19%, P = .07).[54] The lack of a significant effect of vinegar on mealtime glycemia in the type 2 diabetics may be related to the use of venous blood sampling in this trial. Greater within-subject variation in glucose concentrations are noted for venous blood as compared with capillary blood; moreover, the concentration of glucose in venous blood is lower than that in capillary blood. Thus, capillary blood sampling is preferred for determining the glycemic response to food.[55]

The marked antiglycemic effect of vinegar in insulin-resistant subjects is noteworthy and may have important implications. Multicenter trials have demonstrated that treatment with antiglycemic pharmaceuticals (metformin or acarbose) slowed the progression to diabetes in high-risk individuals[56,57]; moreover, because these drugs improved insulin sensitivity, the probability that individuals with impaired glucose tolerance would revert to a normal, glucose-tolerant state over time was increased.[57]

In healthy subjects, Ostman and colleagues[58] demonstrated that acetic acid had a dose-response effect on postprandial glycemia and insulinemia. Subjects consumed white bread (50 g carbohydrate) alone or with 3 portions of vinegar containing 1.1, 1.4, or 1.7 g acetic acid. At 30 minutes post-meal, blood glucose concentrations were significantly reduced by all concentrations of acetic acid as compared with the control value, and a negative linear relationship was calculated between blood glucose concentrations and the acetic acid content of the meal (r = -0.47, P = .001). Subjects were also asked to rate feelings of hunger/satiety on a scale ranging from extreme hunger (-10) to extreme satiety (+10) before meal consumption and at 15-minute intervals after the meal. Bread consumption alone scored the lowest rating of satiety (calculated as area under the curve from time 0-120 minutes). Feelings of satiety increased when vinegar was ingested with the bread, and a linear relationship was observed between satiety and the acetic acid content of the test meals (r = 0.41, P = .004).[58]

In a separate trial, healthy adult women consumed fewer total calories on days that vinegar was ingested at the morning meal.[50] In this trial, which used a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, fasting participants consumed a test drink (placebo or vinegar) followed by the test meal composed of a buttered bagel and orange juice (87 g carbohydrate). Blood samples were collected for 1 hour after the meal. At the end of testing, participants were allowed to follow their normal activities and eating patterns the remainder of the day, but they were instructed to record food and beverage consumption until bedtime. Vinegar ingestion, as compared with placebo, reduced the 60-minute glucose response to the test meal (-54%, P < .05) and weakly affected later energy consumption (-200 kilocalories, P = .111). Regression analyses indicated that 60-minute glucose responses to test meals explained 11% to 16% of the variance in later energy consumption (P< .05).[50] Thus, vinegar may affect satiety by reducing the meal-time glycemic load. Of 20 studies published between 1977 and 1999, 16 demonstrated that low-glycemic index foods promoted postmeal satiety and/or reduced subsequent hunger.[59]

It is not known how vinegar alters meal-induced glycemia, but several mechanisms have been proposed. Ogawa and colleagues examined the effects of acetic acid and other organic acids on disaccharidase activity in Caco-2 cells.[60] Acetic acid (5 mmol/L) suppressed sucrase, lactase, and maltase activities in concentration- and time-dependent manners as compared with control values, but the other organic acids (eg, citric, succinic, L-maric, and L-lactic acids) did not suppress enzyme activities. Because acetic acid treatment did not affect the de-novo synthesis of the sucrase-isomaltase complex at either the transcriptional or translational levels, the investigators concluded that the suppressive effect of acetic acid likely occurs during the posttranslational processing of the enzyme complex.[60] Of note, the lay literature has long proclaimed that vinegar interferes with starch digestion and should be avoided at meal times.[61]

Several investigations examined whether delayed gastric emptying contributed to the antiglycemic effect of vinegar. Using noninvasive ultrasonography, Brighenti and colleagues[50] did not observe a difference in gastric emptying rates in healthy subjects consuming bread (50 g carbohydrate) in association with acetic acid (ie, vinegar) vs sodium acetate (ie, vinegar neutralized by the addition of sodium bicarbonate); however, a significant difference in post-meal glycemia was noted between treatments with the acetic acid treatment lowering glycemia by 31.4%. In a later study, Liljeberg and Bjorck[62] added paracetamol to the bread test meal to permit indirect measurement of the gastric emptying rate. Compared with reference values, postmeal serum glucose and paracetamol concentrations were reduced significantly when the test meal was consumed with vinegar. The results of this study should be carefully considered, however, because paracetamol levels in blood may be affected by food factors and other gastrointestinal events. In rats fed experimental diets containing the indigestible marker polyethylenglycol and varying concentrations of acetic acid (0, 4, 8, 16 g acetic acid /100 g diet), dietary acetic acid did not alter gastric emptying, the rate of food intake, or glucose absorption.[63]

14 replies

Caroltoo 2012-04-03 02:12:22 -0500 Report

Yes, I started to excerpt the more pertinent points, then wasn't sure it would do justice to the research, so left it whole. It is a bear to read!

They are saying that they (researchers) could not conclude how vinegar alters meal-induced glycemia. Then they talk about the "lay literature" saying that vinegar interferes with starch adsorption and should not be taken at meal time. That lay literature is not of or for diabetics, that would be mainstream folks who want to use their carbohydrates. We, with diabetes, don't want to adsorb our carbs cause they spike our BGs, so we would want to take it at meal times and inhibit the absorption of carbs.

Young1s 2012-04-03 15:15:58 -0500 Report

Okay good. Because I've been trying 2 Tbsp with dinner and have been waking up with FBG's in the low 100's. Yesterday 117 and this morning 112. I'm really excited about this, and after going over my BG journal, I realized that there have been a couple of mornings where I have been as low as 103. So things can and will get better for me.

Caroltoo 2012-04-03 18:36:39 -0500 Report

Yes, I use it sometimes in the evening or in the morning, if I find I am higher than I want to be at the start of the day. Lemon juice in water does something similar, but not as pronounced a response.

Young1s 2012-04-02 20:39:36 -0500 Report

That's heavy stuff but I get the gist. I guess the part I'm not getting is that "vinegar interferes with starch digestion and should be avoided at meal times". Isn't the point of taking the vinegar to assist with slowing glucose rises at meal time? I'm I missing something?

robertoj 2012-04-03 02:08:53 -0500 Report

All I know is that vinegar was a part of the process of lowering my bg. In the first year of diabetes management I reduced my bg numbers from a high of 435 to an average between 90 and 110. The thing about diabetes is that what is good for me may be a disaster for you. Whatever you do monitor it closely and do whatever works for you.

Just Joyce
Just Joyce 2012-04-02 11:49:25 -0500 Report

Another benefit of vinegar. Muscle cramps take a teaspoonful and it will help. Since I don't want a bottle of vinegar on my nightstand, I get the packs of mustard when I get a hot dog and put them in a decorated jar with a lid on my nightstand for those muscle cramps in middle of the night.

Just Joyce
Just Joyce 2012-04-02 11:32:29 -0500 Report

Carol I have a friend who uses raw/natural vinegar on a daily basis. He mixes a teaspoon with water before every meal. He did this for a year and is now on half a tablet of met. My cousin used apple cider vinegar to lower his blood pressure. It is good to know vinegar is good for other things besides washing windows, freshening your microwave and oven.

Caroltoo 2012-04-02 11:42:30 -0500 Report

It surely does! My BG bounced up to 150 last night because I am finishing off a carton of ice cream my ice cream loving husband has suddenly decided he "no longer likes." (It's an Alzheimer's thing—taste changes abruptly, or at least the perception of taste does.) When I saw the 146 reading, I got out the vinegar and had a couple tablespoons. When I took it an hour later it was back in the 80's.

Just Joyce
Just Joyce 2012-04-02 11:51:44 -0500 Report

Carol, my dad was an ice cream lover. When he decided he no longer liked ice cream, we had a gallon to eat. He also had Alzheimer's.

I am not giving up my no sugar added ice cream. It must be eaten with my warmed sugar free apple pie.

Caroltoo 2012-04-02 01:52:15 -0500 Report

Another comment about the use of vinegar to stop high blood sugar from occuring by using 1-3 tablespoons of vinegar per day with the side benefit of reducing your risk of Alzheimer's.

Stave off high blood sugar and other Alzheimer's risk factors with a daily dose of vinegar. According to researchers, there is evidence that vinegar sinks risk factors that may lead to memory decline and dementia — namely, high blood sugar, insulin resistance, diabetes and prediabetes, and weight gain. While vinegar does not confront Alzheimer's directly, studies at Arizona State University have found that vinegar can curb appetite and food intake, helping prevent weight gain and obesity. Swedish investigators agree. In one study, downing two or three tablespoons of vinegar with white bread cut expected rises in insulin and blood sugar by about 25 percent. Pour on the vinegar — add it to salad dressings, eat it by the spoonful, even mix it into a glass of drinking water. Any type of vinegar works because it's the acidity that counts.

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